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Clause Connectors

Conjunctions join two independent clauses. Put a comma before the conjunction.
The meeting was emotional, and Cindy drove home in a daze.
Dependent words show the relationship between a dependent clause and an independent one. Use a comma when the dependent one comes first.
She waited for the light to change while horns honked behind her.
While horns honked behind her, she waited for the light.
Transitional expressions show the relationship between ideas in separate independent clauses. Put a period or semicolon between the two dependent clauses, and put a comma after the transitional expression.
Suddenly she realized it was a flashing light. However, it was too late to move.
Suddenly she realized it was a flashing light; however, it was too late to move.

  Con-
junctions
Dependent
words
Transitional expressions
time &
sequence
and after
as
before
since
until
when (+ever)
while
also
afterward
at the same time
besides
earlier
eventually
finally
first
furthermore
in addition
later
meanwhile
moreover
next
now
soon
then
too
comparison
& contrast
but
yet
although
as / than
even though
though
whereas
while
by comparison
by contrast
even so
however
in the same way
likewise
nevertheless
on the contrary
on the other hand
similarly
still
cause &
effect
for
so
as
because
if
since
so that
unless
accordingly
as a result
consequently
for this reason
hence
otherwise
then
therefore
thus
examples &
conclusions
 
after
for example
for instance
in conclusion
in summary
in fact
in other words
in particular
of course
specifically
other
purposes
nor
or
how
that
what (+ever)
where (+ever)
which (+ever)
who/m (+ever)
whether
whose
why
 


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