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10.3 Final -ed: Recognizing Final -ed

Sometimes final -ed is hard to hear in speech.
As the acrobats waited for their turns on the ladder, they looked* dashing in their spangled* tunics.

In speech, the sound of each of the starred -ed endings gets swallowed up in the beginning sound of the next word.

TIP: If you have to make a special effort to pronounce the -ed endings in your speech, you're not alone. Most of us, speaking at a normal pace, slur many -ed endings, so we can't expect to rely completely on our ears to tell us where to put -ed endings in our writing.

pencil Application 1
In Standard English, regular verbs end with -ed in four situations:

  1. A regular verb in the simple past tense ends with -ed
    I will borrow your shirt because you borrowed my hat.
  2. A regular verb expressing completed action consists of some form of the auxiliary to have (has, have, or had) and the past participle of the main verb, which ends with -ed.
    I had borrowed a belt before the concert, but now someone has borrowed it from me.
  3. A regular verb in the passive voice consists of some form of the auxiliary to be (such as is, are, were) and the past participle of the main verb, which ends with -ed.
    I think that it was borrowed by the announcer.
  4. The past participle may be used as a verbal that modifies another word. If the participle is a form of a regular verb, it will end in -ed.
    Leaving borrowed clothes in the costume room was a bad idea.

pencil Application 2


Your work on -ed endings in the rest of this chapter will be easier if you review the relevant verb and verbal patterns. Take a few minutes to review the appropriate sections of Chapter 2 and Chapter 5.

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